How to read genetic reports
Guide to read G-Care report
My polygenic score for carbohydrate metabolism is low. However, I am pretty lightweight, despite excessive consumption of white rice, cakes, dessert. How could that be possible?
Your current health is the result of the interaction between genetic (30%) and environmental (70%) factors. As such, it is important that you check if any of the points below apply to you: 1. How is your diet until now? Irregular meals, uneven food portions (i.e. often eating too little at times and too much at others) could be detrimental to your weight. 2. Is your vitamin B requirement high? A low vitamin B level might impair your nutrition absorption. You might want to find out about this with U-Vita. 3. Are you physically active? Regular exercising promotes higher calories being burned, higher basal metabolic rates ... thereby boosting your metabolism. 4. Your medical history since childhood, including premature births, malnourishment, medical conditions like childhood anemia, extended use of antibiotics, ... 5. Your current medical condition, including endocrine disorders (e.g. diabetes, thyroid issues) could affect your weight; medications such as antibiotics.
I have a high polygenic score for carbohydrate metabolism with several protective variants against insulin resistance. Why was I still diagnosed with diabetes?
Diabetes occurs when the body is resistant to insulin and/or the pancreas couldn’t secrete enough insulin. There are some main risk factors of diabetes as follow: - Genetics: Genetic traits not only affect your metabolism but also cause many other health problems leading to diabetes, including pancreatic function, insulin secretion (the hormone regulates blood sugar level), insulin resistance, hyperglycemia due to disturbances of circadian rhythm, chronic stress… - Diet: Over-consumption of processed foods, sugary foods (cake, sweets), little fiber. Fluctuating meal times, skipping meals… may easily cause impaired fasting glucose, hence, lead to insulin resistance. - Physical activities: sedentary lifestyles - Lifestyles: insomnia, anxiety - Medical history: obesity, accumulation of abdominal/visceral fat, pancreatitis, (if a female has given birth) gestational diabetes, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) Diabetes is a polygenic disorder and requires interactions between genes and the environment. Thus, even though you carry a variant that protects against insulin resistance through good carbohydrate metabolism, a combination of interactions with other genes related to diabetes and the environment still leads to your current diabetes. Plus, to help you answer this question, Genetica has a G-Diabetes that analyzes your diabetes risk and its complications.
My genetic result shows effective fat metabolism with several protective variants against hypercholesterolaemia. However, I have had high cholesterol levels for years. Is there a mistake in my report?
Hypercholesterolaemia refers to elevated levels of cholesterol in your blood. Its causes include both genetic and environmental factors: - Unhealthy eating habits: a lot of saturated fats and simple sugars binge eating junk foods also negatively affect your body's metabolism - Physical activities: active or sedentary lifestyles - Medical history: diabetes, obesity, chronic kidney disease, hypothyroidism, cirrhosis, medications (e.g. thiazides, corticoids, estrogens, beta-blockers ...) could also attribute to hypercholesterolemia. As a result, despite carrying protective variants, the combination of hypercholesterolemia-associated genes and the environment could still lead to your current health status.
I have been following a vegan diet to adjust my blood lipids but the results were underwhelming. What should I do now?
Hypercholesterolaemia refers to elevated levels of cholesterol in your blood. Its causes include both genetic and environmental factors so even if a vegan diet already limits animal-based saturated fats, there are some other things you should note and adjust (if needed): - Your inborn metabolism: Genetics attributes about 30% to elevated cholesterol levels. You should see whether your fat metabolism polygenic score is high (good) or low. - Cooking methods: Are your dishes prepared by frying, lots of seasoning or not? - Plant-based fats: Some vegetable oils like coconut oil or palm oil, coconut milk are still considered saturated fats. - Unhealthy lifestyles: Snacking habits (e.g. sugary drinks, sweet desserts, sugarcane juice, alcoholic drinks, sedentary lifestyles, chronic stress). - Medical history: Diabetes, obesity, chronic kidney disease, hypothyroidism, cirrhosis, medications (e.g. thiazides, corticoids, estrogens, beta-blockers ...) could also attribute to hypercholesterolemia. As a result, despite carrying protective variants, the combination of hypercholesterolemia-associated genes and the environment could still lead to your current health status.
The result in my fat metabolism says that I have a risk of increased systolic blood pressure with saturated fat consumption, but my blood pressure is usually low.
With that result, it does not necessarily mean your systolic blood pressure will be high. Elevated blood pressure has many causes, including genetics, diet, sedentary lifestyles, physical activities, medical and mental history ... The interaction between your genes and the environment leads to hypertension. U-Nutri results reveal your inborn tendency when eating saturated fats, they do not conclude that you have hypertension
My protein metabolism is quite low and meals with a high protein intake like barbecue, hot pot, stews bring me great joy. I hardly ever feel fatigue as described in the report.
Meat is rich in tyrosine, which plays a critical role in the production of dopamine (the "feel-good" hormone). Studies have shown that foods rich in tyrosine give a boost in dopamine levels in the brain. The more meat you consume, the better you would feel. Nevertheless, a low protein metabolism still affects liver and kidney function. You still carry risks of metabolic syndromes, colorectal cancers regardless of how you feel when eating red meat.
My protein metabolism is good. How come I still have Gout?
Protein metabolism is different from a pathology of gout. _ Gout is caused by a disorder of purine metabolism in the kidneys, which prevents the kidneys from filtering uric acid from the bloodstream. Uric acid is formed in the body and then eliminated in the urine and feces, so it is usually harmless. One specific feature of gout is the amount of uric acid in the blood builds up over time. When this concentration is too high, small crystals of uric acid are formed. These crystals gather in the joints and cause inflammation, swelling, and pain. There are 2 main causes of gout: 1. Primary (95% of cases occur in men from 30 - 60 years old) - Cause: unknown. - High exposure to alcohol, consume food rich in purines such as liver, kidney, shrimp, crab, egg yolk, mushroom... 2. Secondary: - Genetic factors: rare. - Increased uric acid production and/or decreasing uric acid excretion. - Renal failure and other diseases that reduce the glomerular clearance of uric acid. - Blood diseases: acute leukemia. - Drugs: diuretics (furosemide, thiazide, acetazolamide…), cytostatic, anti - tuberculosis (ethambutol, pyrazinamide) _ Protein metabolism is using protein from food to create energy for body activities or other physiological processes of the body. A good metabolism means an efficient process of making energy from protein. However, a person may have gout if he has one of the above causes.
Why is my power performance low but I am very good at sports need speed or strength, I can even get better performance than others?
Power performance, which expresses apparently as the interaction between genotype and environment, includes: 1. Exercise regularly and properly 2. Diet? Supplement nutrients, provide adequate water and electrolytes when playing sports 3. Rest mode? When you have a healthy lifestyle and rest, your body will recover quickly after playing sports. Your starting point (genetically) may have disadvantages compared to others, but these above factors can improve your inherent genetic predisposition. However, due to your genetic disadvantage associated with strength, you need to be aware of training injuries. Please note that you should always warm up and stretch before and after exercise, do not increase exercise intensity suddenly, consider adding the necessary foods to support strength training, such as chicken breast, green vegetables, fruit, and creatine phosphate supplements.
Why is my power performance high but I can't take heavy weightlifting?
Expression features of a certain trait will be caused by the interaction between genotype and environment. Environmental conditions can affect strength such as training, nutrition, rest regimen, medical condition... If a person has a high polygenic power score but does not practice regularly, or even at the time of weightlifting, his health is not good, he still cannot lift a weight heavier than the body's tolerance threshold. In addition, the condition of the joints also affects the ability to lift heavy objects.
Why is my power performance high but I still lost the fight with another having power performance lower than me?
Expression features of a certain trait will be caused by the interaction between genotype and environment. Hence, two people have the same polygenic scores for power, yet they have different environmental conditions, can still have different power performance. Environmental conditions can affect strength such as: training, nutrition, rest regimen, medical condition... If a person doesn't have a high polygenic power score but practice regularly, he may still improve his strength, so it is possible that he exhibits better strength than someone with a good genotype but not exercising regularly. In addition, winning in a duel is also related to other factors such as tactics of competition, the ability to grasp the opponent's loopholes, pain tolerance.
Why is my power performance high though my competitive ability is always not good at sports need speed or strength?
Due to the interaction between genotype and environment, the following factors can affect your endurance capacity: 1. Do you exercise regularly? If you have sedentary lifestyle since childhood, your body can hardly adapt to the exercise mode. 2. Your current health status? If you have problems with cardiopulmonary disease, musculoskeletal function, etc., these can affect your participation in endurance sports. 3. Your current diet? Lack of energy and water can affect your physical performance. 4. Your current resting mode? If your rest regimen is not suitable, it will take longer for your body to recover after playing sports. Muscles are born with daily exercise, although you (genetically) have a good capacity to generate maximum force if you exercise infrequently and have an unhealthy diet, or biological clock is not suitable, the possibility of losing muscle or not taking maximum of your genetic predisposition may happen.
Why is my endurance result high though I always feel weak and unfavorable in sports need endurance ability?
Due to the interaction between genotype and environment, the following factors can affect your endurance capacity: 1. Do you exercise regularly? If you have sedentary lifestyle since childhood, your body can hardly adapt to the exercise mode. 2. Your current health status? If you have problems with cardiopulmonary disease, musculoskeletal function, etc., these can affect your participation in endurance sports. 3. Do you pay attention to your breathing when participating in endurance sports? If you do not pay attention to your regular breathing when playing sports, your body will burn energy to produce lactic acid, which is not eliminated in time, hence, causing quickly fatigue feeling, muscle pain. 4. Your current diet? Lack of energy and water can affect your physical performance. 5. Your current resting mode? If your rest regimen is not suitable, it will take longer for your body to recover after playing sports. Therefore, it is necessary to consider environmental issues affecting actual genotypic expression.
Cardiorespiratory Fitness (CRF)
Why do I feel very tired every time I climb the stairs though my CRF score is high?
Due to the interaction between genotype and environment, the following factors can make you feel tired when climbing the stairs: 1. How often do you climb the stairs? If you have sedentary lifestyle since childhood, your body can hardly adapt to the exercise mode. 2. Your current health status? CRF is assessed through the quantity VO2Max which is the maximum oxygen amount that your body can use in 1 minute to maintain activities continuosly with large muscle mass. If you have problems with cardiopulmonary disease, musculoskeletal function, etc., these can affect your ability to climd the stairs. 3. Your current diet? Lacking energy and water can affect your physical activities. You should plan daily physical activities so that your body can get used to the exercise mode. Since your CRF is naturally quite good, this is the foundation on which you can be physically active.
My genotype shows that my CRF is not good. Why is my VO2max quite high when taking healthcare check?
CRF is characterized by the quantity VO2Max (which is the maximum oxygen absorption capacity during physical activity). Your genetic results show that the innate genetic predisposition to VO2Max. The results of healthcare checking will show your fitness level at that time, which is a combination of genotype and environment interactions, resulting in differences from genotypes. Therefore, if you have the right approach, a healthy lifestyle, and regular exercise, you can improve your VO2Max.
My CRF score is high while my endurance score is low. Why?
- CRF is characterized by the quantity VO2Max (which is the maximum oxygen absorption capacity during physical activity). - Usually, people with good CRF will have good endurance. However, it still has an exception because endurance depends on other factors such as angiogenesis capacity, rate of slow-twitch muscle fibers, ability to break down fat, absorb water... beside oxygen absorption capacity.
My endurance, power, and CRF results are all good. Why did I feel tired quickly when taking exercises, and even my highschool fitness score was not high since I was a child?
Due to the interaction between genotype and environment, the following factors can affect your fitness: 1. Do you exercise regularly? If you have sedentary lifestyle since childhood, your body can hardly adapt to the exercise mode. 2. Your current health status? If you have problems with cardiopulmonary disease, musculoskeletal function, etc., you should discuss with your doctor. 3. Your current diet? You should consume enough nutrition for your physical activities such as minerals and water, etc. Please take note of these factors and plan to improve your fitness with simple exercises from low to high intensity, also, maintain regularly so that your body can adapt to the exercise mode.
In fact, I am not good at playing sport. Why do my athletic scores seem to be very ''advantageous''?
Good sports performance depends on the interaction of many factors: genes (sports advantage), nutrition, exercise, rest. For example, some people can't play sports continuously because of muscle pain, and they also need to know more about the risk of injury and resilience in their congenital genotype. Besides, proper nutrition and exercise methods are also very important. Therefore, high scores of endurance, power, and CRF do not mean that you will be good at sports but show you that you have advantages from genetics to leverage them.
My analysis shows that I don't carry a pathogenic mutation of breast cancer. Why is my lifetime risk of breast cancer high up to 13.33%?
- Each type of cancer has a certain incidence (different in women and men). - The figure of 13.33% is given based on statistical studies around the world showing the average frequency of breast cancer in women. - When a person carries gene mutations associated with breast cancer such as mutations in the BRCA1 gene can increase the incidence of breast cancer by up to 87%.
Why may carrying a genetic mutation increase the risk of cancer but be unlikely to get it?
Cancer is caused by genetic mutations. Mutations affect the normal function of genes, hence, increase the risk of cancer. However, the expression of cancer requires interaction between genotype and environment. For instance, a woman knows that she carries a breast cancer gene so she decides to change her lifestyle (healthy food, exercise, rest, etc.) and have breast check-ups periodically to help prevent breast cancer at the beginning.
I don't have mutation leads to Asian Flush, why does my face turn red while drinking alcohol?
Asian Flush is influenced by many genes. The result shows that an individual has/or does not have Asian Flush is the analysis of many different genes and variants. People with this syndrome have a decreased ability to break down Acetaldehyde (a product of alcohol breakdown), causing this compound to accumulate in blood vessels, leading to vasodilation, hence, redness of the face, neck, and shoulders (even the whole body). For individuals who are not reported to be affected by this syndrome, but still have flushing problems while drinking alcohol, it may be due to these reasons as below: 1. Polygenic score of multiple variants (including protective, adverse, or normal variants) across the 3 genes analyzed indicates a low or moderate risk of this syndrome (people who do not have this syndrome). However, the effect of a certain variant on the 3 genes can cause signs of flushing while drinking alcohol. 2. The phenomenon of flushing (while drinking alcohol) can come from other causes (such as liver efficiency, metabolism of other products,...). Given the influence of these health conditions, alcohol-induced blushing is not frequent, and is associated with these conditions mentioned above. With or without alcohol-induced flushing syndrome, long-term and high alcohol consumption will cause a lot of harm to your health, especially the digestive system.
I don't like crowds. Why do I have an extroverted genetic result?
Personality traits depend on the interaction between genotype and environment, of which 30% is influenced by genetic factors and 70% is influenced by your experiences. You need to consider the following additional aspects: - Are you tired of interacting or communicating with too many people and why? - What was your living environment like since childhood? Do you have the opportunity to communicate with others? - Your current living environment? Does your job require communication with many people?
I like connecting and making friends with lots of people. Why do I have an introverted genetic result?
Personality traits depend on interactions between genotype and environment. The following aspects need to be further explored: - Your living environment since childhood? For example, since childhood, you have lived in a crowded home environment, people are happy and talk a lot with each other; you could participate in many activities, games with many people. - Your current living environment? Does your job require communication with many people?
I often find myself anxious. Why is my emotional instability low?
Personality traits depend on interactions between genotype and environment. The following aspects need to be further explored: - Do you often share your worries with people around you? - Your living environment since childhood? Have you ever experienced events such as the loss of your loved one, witnessing your loved one's illness, or your own illness? Do any of your relatives worry or show negative emotions about unsatisfied things? Have you been compared yourself to others? - Your current living environment? Do you face a lot of pressure in work or life? Are people (around you) anxious and pessimistic? - Sleep quality: Prolonged sleep deprivation can make you anxious and depressed.
I rarely find myself anxious. Why is my emotional instability high?
Personality traits depend on interactions between genotype and environment. The following aspects need to be further explored: - Habitat? Your life may be peaceful, you receive a lot of attention and help from others, and you live around people who are positive thinkers and optimists. - Physical activity? Meditation and yoga help stabilize emotions. Regular sports activities such as walking, jogging, swimming, cycling... help increase metabolism, neurotrophic factors and serotonin hormone in order to control your emotions better.
My stress - handling score is good. Why do I find myself still concern about the problem which has been resolved?
Personality traits depend on interactions between genotype and environment. The following aspects need to be further explored: - Do you offer a solution that can really solve the problem? Because if it is only a temporary solution, you may still wonder about the problem to find the optimal solution. - Your living environment since childhood? Is there a lot of comparison and pressure while studying? - Your current living environment? Do you face a lot of pressure in work or life? - Insomnia? Sleep deprivation reduces nerve cell repair, hence, affect the ability to manage stress.
My stress - handling score is low. Why do I find it quick to get out of stress and work effectively?
The actual expression of your personality depends on the interaction between genotype and environment. You need to consider the following additional aspects: - Habitat? Are you often under pressure from family or work? Do you often share your worries and receive support from people around you? - Physical activity? Meditation and yoga help stabilize emotions. Regular sports activities such as walking, jogging, swimming, cycling... help increase metabolism, neurotrophic factors, and serotonin hormone in order to control your anxiety better. - Have you experienced working in a high-pressure environment? Do you often work in a stressful environment? How long have you worked like this? Being too used to a stressful working environment will help improve the ability to control pressure. As a result, you may not feel the mental pressure. However, possible symptoms such as hair loss, dark skin, stomach pain, weight gain, brittle nails are also signs that your body is still under the influence of stress hormones.
The profile shows I have high risk of insomnia. Why don't I have insomnia practically?
Genes are inherited and unchangeable throughout life. Genes that affect sleep can be expressed at any time. Besides, sleep deprivation is also affected by your living habits or lifestyle. Therefore, if you have a high risk of insomnia, you can completely prevent this risk by developing good sleep habits like practicing the right bedtime habits, not being exposed to blue light from electronic devices and noise to maintain better sleep quality.
The profile shows I have low risk of insomnia. Why do I have insomnia regularly?
Expressions of insomnia depend on interactions between genotype and environment. Insomnia is not only caused by genotype, but also by your living habits or lifestyle. You are genetically protected against insomnia, so if you have these factors, you need to improve them for better sleep: - Going to bed late, the sleep-wake cycle is unstable - Exposure to blue light sources such as TV, phone, etc before going to bed - Use nerve stimulants such as coffee, tea.. in the evening - Stressful work - Sedentary lifestyle, less exposed to sunlight * If you have frequent insomnia, you should consider seeing your doctor for appropriate treatment.
My caffeine metabolism is not good. Why could I drink coffee a lot and not get drunk?
Poor caffeine metabolism is related to the slow rate of caffeine clearance of your liver. People with poor caffeine metabolism will experience the effects of caffeine longer than those with good caffeine metabolism while consuming the same amount of caffeine. However, caffeine tolerance depends on how often you consume caffeine. The more often you consume caffeine, the less effects you feel on your body. Therefore, if you regularly drink coffee, you still can increase your caffeine consumption, but the effects of caffeine on your body still last longer, hence, causing a higher risk of hypertension than those who metabolize caffeine well. Please note that the amount of caffeine allowance is <200mg/day.
My caffeine metabolism is good but I feel uncomfortable and my heart beats fast while drinking coffee. Why?
There are actually genes that tell apart 2 groups of people: the first group are those who have- good metabolizers of caffeine and not shaking/vomiting/raise heart beat types and the second are the good metabolizers of caffeine but still have side effect even with only 2 cups of coffee. or one cup of strong coffee. IGenetica also test those genes comprehensively. Therefore, if you have good coffee metabolizing gene but still experience side effects, we will indicate clearly in report's results.
My result shows that I have low risk of accumulating belly fat. Why do I have belly fat?
Expression characteristics of a certain trait will be caused by interactions between genotype and environment. Environmental factors such as nutrition, exercise regime, work type... can also affect the accumulation of belly fat. For instance, if you have an unreasonable diet (energy input is larger than energy output), sedentary lifestyle (stay up too late, sitting for too long, and not moving at working), the ability of belly fat accumulation is still higher despite you have a low risk of this. Also, if you compare yourself with a person with a high risk of belly fat accumulation, with the same living habits, eating and exercising, you will see your amount of subcutaneous and visceral fat is lower.
My result shows that I have high risk of accumulating belly fat. In fact, I am skinny and I don't have belly fat. Why?
Expression characteristics of a certain trait will be caused by interactions between genotype and environment. Environmental factors such as nutrition, exercise regime, work type... can also affect the accumulation of belly fat. For instance, if you have a reasonable diet (energy input is less than or balanced with energy output), regularly exercise, or have to move frequently, the ability to accumulate belly fat is still low though you have a high risk of belly fat accumulation. Besides, the tendency to accumulate belly fat also influences your body shape. People with a high tendency to accumulate belly fat may have a pear-shaped body.
Could I plan a menu from the results of U-Nutri?
The U-Nutri report pie chart provides information on the percentage of macronutrients per day to help you avoid metabolic problems, and have a list of food you should or should not eat. However, to create a complete nutritional diet, you may need other information such as your current health, vitamin - mineral requirement, detoxification ability… Please reach out hotline 1900 599 927 if you want to: - Deeply understand the benefits and implication of U-Nutri results. Genetica will assist you to schedule a consultation with our expert to personalize your results. - Contact a nutritionist to plan a optimal diet for you.
I have listened and responded to my body's needs: diverse diet, low sugar/fat consumption, regular exercising. Is there anything more U-Nutri could bring to the table?
Congratulations on taking good care of your health. However, your body still has other traits that are not expressed because of your deactivated gene regulation. Besides, observation and listening to your body requires a trial process to take the right action for your health. Meanwhile, information of U-Nutri can help you understand your body from the core to have the right choices for habits and lifestyle at the beginning.
I'm afraid results from U-Nutri might worsen my anxiety if I have any metabolic risks.
Metabolic problems can be prevented with a healthy lifestyle (nutrition, exercise, and rest), or minimized if detected and treated early. Knowing your risk factors for inherited metabolic disorders will help you decide on the right lifestyle to get rid of these problems, like which food groups should or should not be consumed. Besides, you can find more other genetic traits to choose the right sport, sleep quality, reduce anxiety, cancer risk, detoxification ability... to plan your health care effectively.
With the U-Nutri result, which other genetic information can I find to help me understand my health risks better?
With U-Nutri results, if you wish to discover other health problems, Genetica offers some suggestions as below: - High cholesterol level, hypertension, cardiovascular disease: G-Stroke - High blood sugar level, diabetes: G-Diabetes - Metabolic risks, sleep problems, anxiety, stress, high alcohol exposure (adults only): G-Kid Care (for children), G-Pro (for adults) - Allergic problems, rashes: G-Allergy - Frequent exposure to alcohol, liver disease: U-Detox - Vitamin requirement for the effective nutritional scheme: U-Vita, G-Allergy
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